The Lak Language – Лакку маз

 

A Quick Reference

Author: Wolfgang Schulze (IATS, LMU Munich) // © 2007 [third (augmented and corrected) version]

PDF-Version

 

Note: This overview does not represent a full coverage of Lak. The reader should at any rate refer to the bibliography given at the end of this presentation. The sections on morphosyntax and syntax conform to what can be called the ‘typological format’ as used in standard functional descriptions of language. Also note that a number of Lak grammatical categories are a matter of dispute. The view taken in this presentation does not necessarily reflect the opinion of others doing research on Lak! All possible errors are mine!

Comments, suggestions, and corrections please mail to W.Schulze@lrz.uni-muenchen.de

 

Contents:

 

1. General Information

2. Phonology and writing system

3. Morphosyntax

4. Syntax

5. Lexicon

6. Sample text with interlinear glosses

7. Some statistics (phonetics and grammar)

8. Some references

Some links

 

1. General Information

 

Name: lak:u maz (лакку маз)

Genetic affiliation:  

            East Caucasian, ‘old Type’ (see /kaukhist.pdf), separate branch.

            Closer relationship: Dargi, important isoglosses with Nakh (Chechen, Ingush, Bats)

 

ecl baum.jpg


Number of speakers: ~ 90.000 – 100.000

Written language: Yes (Cyrillic-based alphabet, see below)

Location: Central Daghestan:

lak global

lak gebiet all2

 

Towns and villages (in Lak orthography, incomplete list!):

Lakskij Rayon: Кьуба, Чlара, Ккуркли, Кума, Кlунды, Хьараша, Унчукутль, Гъумучи, Хъуна, Хьури, Кубра, Ури, Шовкра, Щара, Хурхи, Кlулушац, Хулисма, Бурши,

Kkul Rayon:      Къани, Вихьли, Ккули, Хайхи, Цыйши, Ваччи, Кая, Сумбатль, Цlушар, Цlовкра-2, Хосрех, Цlовкра-1

Others:             Аракул, Новолакрей, Тухчар, Гамиях, Новочуртах, Дучи, Ахар,

                        Новокули, Новолакское, Чапаево, Анжи, Каспийск, Щурагь, Москвa…

 

lak dialects.jpg

Grouping:

         Sh-dialects

                   Arakul, Bartkhi, Shadni, Kumukh, Witskhi, Shali

         S-dialects

                   Wikhli, Pervotsovkri, Kayali-Mashiki; Wachi-Kuli

 

Earlier writing traditions: Arabic (until 1928), Latin (until 1938)

 

Early sources:

            * Translation of the Muçammad Eulogy al-burda (by al-Buṣīrī) ~ 1700.

            * Medical book, translation of the Tuxfat al-mucminīn (al-Djeilemi) (1734), preseved as a copy by Khadži-Ali from Khanar (1774).

            * Lak version of the Derbend-Name (by Mirza Khaydar, called Verizov) ~ 1800.

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2. Phonology / Writing System

 

1. Consonants

 

Transcription / ‘Caucasianists’ Style’

 

Stops

Affricates

Spirants

Nasals

Approximants

 

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gem

 

 

Bilabial

b

p

p’

p:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

m

w

Dento-Alveolar

d

t

t’

t:

 

c

c’

c:

z

s

s:

n

r / l

Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

č

č’

č:

ž

š

š:

 

 

Labio-Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

čʷ

čʷ’

č:ʷ

žʷ

šʷ

š:ʷ

 

 

Velar

g

k

k’

k:

 

 

 

 

 

:

 

y

Labio-Velar

gʷ

kʷ

kʷ’

k:ʷ

 

 

 

 

 

ʷ

:ʷ

 

 

Uvular

 

q

q’

q:

 

 

 

 

ğ

x

x:

 

 

Labio-Uvular

 

qʷ

qʷ’

q:ʷ

 

 

 

 

ğʷ

xʷ

x:ʷ

 

 

Pharyngeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ħ

 

 

 

Laryngeal

 

 

’

 

 

 

 

 

 

h

 

 

 

 

 

Transcription / IPA

 

Stops

Affricates

Spirants

Nasals

Approximants

 

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gem

 

 

Bilabial

b

p

p’

p:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

m

w ~ B

Dento-Alveolar

d

t

t’

t:

 

ts

ts’

ts:

z

s

s:

n

r / l

Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

tʃ'

tʃ:

ʒ

ʃ

ʃ:

 

 

Labio-Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

ʷ

ʷ’

tʃ:ʷ

ʒʷ

ʃʷ

ʃ:ʷ

 

 

Velar

g

k

k’

k:

 

 

 

 

 

x

x:

 

j

Labio-Velar

gʷ

kʷ

kʷ’

k:ʷ

 

 

 

 

 

xʷ

x:ʷ

 

 

Uvular

 

q

q’

q:

 

 

 

 

ʁ

χ

χ:

 

 

Labio-Uvular

 

qʷ

qʷ’

q:ʷ

 

 

 

 

ʁW

χʷ

χ:ʷ

 

 

Pharyngeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ħ

 

 

 

Laryngeal

 

 

ʕ

 

 

 

 

 

 

h

 

 

 

 

Writing System

 

Stops

Affricates

Spirants

Nasals

Approximants

 

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Vd

Vl

Gem

 

 

Bilabial

б

п

п1

пп

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

м

в

Dento-Alveolar

д

т

т1

тт

 

ц

ц1

цц

з

с

сс

н

р / л

Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

ч

ч1

чч

ж

ш

щ

 

 

Labio-Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

чв

ч1ч1в

ччв

жв

шв

щв

 

 

Velar

г

к

к1

кк

 

 

 

 

 

хь

хьхь

 

й

Labio-Velar

гв

кв

к1в

ккв

 

 

 

 

 

хьв

хьхьв

 

 

Uvular

 

хъ

кь

къ

 

 

 

 

гъ

х

хх

 

 

Labio-Uvular

 

хъв

кв1

къкъв

 

 

 

 

гъв

хв

ххв

 

 

Pharyngeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

х1

 

 

 

Laryngeal

 

 

ъ

 

 

 

 

 

 

гь

 

 

 

 

lak vowels.jpg

 

Cumulation: Consonants in Caucasian languages

 

Stops

Affricates

Spirants

N.

Ap.

 

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Gem/

Gl

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

Gem/

Gl

Vd

Vl

Gl

Gem

 

 

Bilabial

b

p

p’

p:

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

f

f’

f:

m

w ~ B

Dento-Alveolar

d

t

t’

t:

t:’

dz

ts

ts’

ts:

ts:’

z

s

s’

s:

n

r / l

Dento-Labial

dʷ

tʷ

tʷ’

t:ʷ

t:ʷ’

dzʷ

tsʷ

tsʷ’

tsʷ:

ts:ʷ’

zʷ

sʷ

sʷ’

s:ʷ

 

 

Alveo-Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

’

 

 

ʑ

ɕ

ɕ’

 

 

 

Labio-AlvPal

 

 

 

 

 

dʑʷ

ʷ

ʷ’

 

 

ʑʷ

ɕʷ

ɕʷ’

 

 

 

Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

tS

tS’

tS:

tS:’

ʒ

ʃ

ʃ'

ʃ:

 

 

Labio-Palatal

 

 

 

 

 

ʷ

tSʷ

tSʷ’

tS:ʷ

tS:ʷ’

ʒʷ

ʃʷ

ʃʷ’

ʃ:ʷ

 

 

Lateral

 

 

 

 

 

 

’

tɬ:

tɬ:’

 

ɬ

ɬ’

ɬ:

 

 

Labio-Lateral

 

 

 

 

 

 

ʷ

ʷ’

tɬ:ʷ

tɬ:ʷ’

 

ɬʷ

ɬʷ’

ɬ:ʷ

 

 

Velar

g

k

k’

k:

k:’

 

 

 

 

 

ɣ

x

 

x:

 

j

Labio-Velar

gʷ

kʷ

kʷ’

k: ʷ

k:ʷ’

 

 

 

 

 

ɣʷ

xʷ

 

x:ʷ

 

 

Uvular

ɢ

q

q’

q:

q:’

 

 

 

 

 

ʁ

χ

 

χ:

 

 

Labio-Uvular

 

qʷ

qʷ’

q:ʷ

q:ʷ’

 

 

 

 

 

ʁʷ

χʷ

 

χ:ʷ

 

 

Pharyngeal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ʡ

ħ

 

 

 

 

Labio-Pharyng.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ʡʷ

ħʷ

 

 

 

 

Laryngeal

 

 

ʢ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

h

 

 

 

 

Black: Lak, RED + other ECL, Blue: + specifics of WCL

 

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2. Morphosyntax

 

2.1 Head- and Dependent Marking: Mixed

 

basic aec.jpg

2.2 Case marking on nouns:

 

                            SG                                 PL

         ABS             BF                                           BF + PL

         OBL             BF + SA:SG + CASE                BF + SA:PL + CASE

 

         BF = Base Form, ABS = Absolutive (Ø), OBL = Oblique cases

         SA = Stem Augment (lexical-based, in parts classifying)

 

         Case forms

 

         Absolutive                                

         Genitive~Ergative(~Instrumental)  -l

         Dative                                      -n

         General Ablative                         -š:a

         Comitative                                 -š:al

         Instrumental, Causal                            -ynu

         Comparative                              -yar

         Possessive/Adessive                  -(a)

         General Allative                         -:un

         Circumessive                             -xlu

 

Case/Series of Locatives

 

 

SERIES

IN

ON

BEHIND

BELOW

AT

AT (emph.)

 

 

IN

SUPER

POST

SUB

AD

AD2

 

CASE

 

-wu-

-y-

-x(u)-

-lu-

’a-

-c’(u)-

ESSIVE

Exact

-wu

-y

-x

-lu

’a

-c’

Region

-x

-wux

-yx

-xux

-lux

---

-c’ux

LATIVE

AB-

-a(tu)

-wa(tu)

-ya(tu)

-xa(tu)

-la(tu)

’a(tu)

-c’a(tu)

DIR-

-n-CL-ay

-wun-CL-ay

-yn-CL-ay

-xun-CL-ay

-lun-CL-ay

’an-CL-ay

-c’un-CL-ay

AD-

-n

-wun

-yn

-xun

-lun

’an

-c’un

[Note: The functional description varies from author to author]

 

 

2.3 Noun Classes: Basically covert (no marking on nouns, but on dependent constituents)

 

Historically four classes, based on the distribution SG/PL:

 

 

 

Original System

 

Lak

 

 

 

 

 

SG

PL

SG

PL

 

 

 

I

*w-

*b-

Ø-, -w-, -u- (-b-)

b-

 

 

 

II

*r-

*b-

d-, -r-, -n-, -l-

b-

 

 

 

III

*b-

*d-

b-, -w-, -m, -p:-

b-

 

 

 

IV

*d-

*d-

d-, -r-, -n-, -l-

d-

 

 

 

V

 

 

b-, -w-, -m-, -p:-

d-(only q:at:a ‘house’)

 

 

        

Competing classifications

 

 

 

SA with Deixis/Referentializer

 

Definite Attributive Marker

 

I

-na-

 

-ma

 

II

-ni-

 

-mur

 

III

-ni

 

-mur

 

IV

-ni-

 

-mur

 

PL

-ni

 

-mi

 

Semantic classes (Kumukh Type)

 

I        Male human beings

II       Historically: Female human beings, now only for older women

III      Historically: Radial category, including referents that are positive/relevant for Lak society

IV      Historically: Radial category, including referents that are less positive/relevant for Lak society

        

Classes III and IV now have a mixed character. III also includes children and younger women.

 

2.4 Qualitative Attributes (no case marking) (= referential forms):

 

 

General

Specific

 

SG

PL

SG

PL

I

 

 -s:a

-ma

 

-mi

II

-mur

III

-mur

IV

-mur

 

 

2.5 Pronouns

 

2.5.1 Personal Pronouns (no ergative case; S=A;O)

 

 

SG

 

 

PL

 

 

 

 

ABS

OBL

 

ABS

OBL

 

 

1

na

t:u-

 

žu

žu-

 

 

2

ina

wi-

 

zu

zu-

 

 

Inklusive: žu k’iyagu (= ‚we, the TWO’)   

Exclusive: žuwa k’iwas:a and variants

Third Person = Deixis / ga and represent the preferred anaphora

 

2.5.2 Deixis

 

                            Referential    Verbal

         As such        DX+SA-        DX+SA + COP

         Qualifying     DX               DX:ADV

 

         Subcategorization:

 

 

 

 

Kumukh

Bartkhi

Arakul

 

 

 

πprox

 

wa

a

wa

 

 

 

πmed

 

mu

mu

muw

 

 

 

πdist®

 

hawa

 

 

 

πdist­

 

k’()a

k’a

ho

 

 

 

πdist¯

 

g(ʷ)a

g#(ʷ)a

ho

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Lak DPs

Adverbs

 

 

 

 

πprox

 

*wa

ši-k:u

 

 

 

 

πmed

 

*mu

mi-k:u

 

 

 

 

πdist®

 

*ta:

ti-k:u

 

 

 

 

πdist­

 

*k’ʷa

k’i-k:u

 

 

 

 

πdist¯

 

*gʷa

gʷi-k:u

 

 

 

 

 

Inflection:

 

I

II-IV

I-II PL

III-IV

 

 

 

 

ABS

-y

-y

 

 

 

 

OBL

-na-

-ni-

-nna-

-nnu-

 

 

 

2.5.3 Reflexives

                                     

 

I

II

III

IV

 

1sg

na-wa

na-ra

na-wa

---

 

2sg

ina-wa

ina-ra

ina-wa

---

 

3sg ABS

cu-(wa)

cu(-rda)

cu(-p:a)

cu-ra

 

3sg OBL

ca-C((m)-a)

ci-C(-a)

ci-C-(C’/ra)

ci-C-(C’/ra)

 

1pl

žu-wa

žu-wa

žu-wa

----

 

2pl

zu-wa

zu-wa

zu-wa

----

 

3pl ABS

ciw(p:a)

ciw(p:a)

ciw(p:a)

ciw/rda

 

3pl OBL

ca-C(-(m)a)

ca-C(-(m)a)

ca-C(-(m)a)

ca-C(-C’/ra)

 

[C = Case; C’ = assimilated to consonant of case morpheme]

 

2.5.4 Interrogative Pronouns

 

                   ABS             OBL

‚who’            cu                š:i-

‚what’           ci                s:a-

‚which’                             cukun-s:a / cukun-ma/-mur/-mi      [lit.: Who [is said]…]

‚who’                     cu-ma/-mur/-mi

‚how many/much’     ci-mi ~ cik-s:a

‚how’                     cukun

‚why’                     ciwan  [lit. ci-w-a-n what-iii-do-inf]

‘where?’                 čʷu

‘where to?’              čun

‘where from’            čWa

 

2.5.5 Indefinite pronouns

 

         I                  II                 III                         IV                         PL

                                               ciriw

                                               cuyaw

                                               cis:ariw

         cu-unugu       ---                cu-bun(u)gu            ci-dunugu               ca-bunugu

 

2.5.6 Negative pronouns

         Interrogative + -č’aw ~ -k’uy

 

 

2.6 Numerals

 

2.6.1 Cardinals

 

 

 

I

II

III

IV

1

ca

-wa

-ra

-wa

-ra

2

k’i

-ya

-ra

-wa

-ra

3

šan

-a (-n- > m-)

-na

-ma

-na

4

muq’

-a

-ra

-wa

-ra

5

x:uʕ

-ya

-ra

-wa

-ra

6

raʕx

-a

-ra

-wa

-ra

7

arul

-a

-la

-wa

-la

8

maʕy

-a

-ra

-wa

-ra

9

urč’

-a

-ra

-wa

-ra

10

ac’

-a

-ra

-wa

-ra

 

11-19  ac’-niya NUM [ac’-n-iya = 10 + SA-SUPER:ABL]

21-29  q:u-niya NUM

30-39  zuwal-liy NUM

40      muq’-c’al…

50      x:uʕc’al…

60      raʕxc’al…

70      arulc’al…

80      maʕyc’al…

90      urč’c’al…

100     t:urš

 

Nominalized: ABS   NUM + CL (*-wa/*-ra/*-ba/*-da)

                   OBL    NUM + SA [+masc/-masc] + Case

 

2.6.2 Ordinals

                   NUM + -l-čin- + -s:a, -ma, -mur, -mi        [Group]

                   NUM + -l-ku                                        [Individuals]

 

2.6.3 Multiplicatives

                   NUM + -lla (V_), -illa (C_)

 

2.6.4 Grouping

                   NUM+ NUM:  k’i-k’i-wa (III) ‚by two’) etc.

 

 

2.7 Verb

 

2.7.1 Basic characteristics

 

         * TAM: Tripartite system: PAST vs. PRES vs. FUT (gerund~participle-/infinitive-based)

         * Strong tendency towards analytic TAM constructions

         * Class agreement

         * Hierarchic person agreement marking (floating personal agreement markers (fPAM))

         * Prefixing (class and (older) preverbs) – suffixing (TAM) – clitisizing (fPAM)

         * Aspect/aktionsart opposition via stem formation

         * (Historically): Transitive/Intransitive distinction via thematic vowels (*-a-/*-i- vs. *-u-)

 

2.7.2 Basic pattern of synthetic TAM-forms

TAM stems.jpg                         

Unmarked     Progressive                      Iterative

                            -Ø-               -l- † (following the root)       -aw- (following the root)

         Option                             *-n- / *-r-

                                               Suppletion                       Suppletion             

                                               Underived

                                               [† Historically an Antipassive marker]

 

                            PAST           PRES                    FUT

         CL               yes              in parts                  in parts

         fPAM           in parts         in parts                  in parts

         Marker          -n(u)             -a(y)                      -an (=Infinitive)

         Options                           Stem suppletivism   Stem suppletivism  

                                               Change of -C in root Change of -C in root

 

Example čič- ‚to write’

 

                   PAST  či-CL-ču-nu   či-CL-č-lu-nu           či-CL-č-awu-nu

                   PRES čič-ay           čič-l-ay                  čič-aw-ay

                   FUT    čič-an-                   čič-l-an-                 čič-aw-an-

 

         -nu                              >        past forms

         -ay                              >        present, past, conditional, potential, imperative

         -Vn (infinitive base) >        future, optative, conditional

 

Underived progressive stems (examples):

 

č:wan ‘want’

t’un ‘say’

x:an ‘seem’

zun ‘work’

 

Some verbs lack a non-progressive:

 

š:aran ‘boil’

šanan ‘sleep’

zanan ‘walk’

 

Placement of -l-marker (durative, progressive):

 

         1. Historically (C)VC-roots: (C1)VC2-la-C2-

 

                   CL-it- >        CL-it-la-t-      ‘let’

                   las-    >        las-la-s-        ‘take’

                   bus-    >        bus-la-s-       ‘say’

 

 

         2. Historically C-roots: C-l(a)-

                   č-ič-   >        či-č-la-                   ‘write’

 

Opposition Confirmative vs. Inferential/Dubitative (-k:ar-):

 

na      čič-ay-s:a-ra                     čağar (Conf. Present, non-progresssive)

I:abs   write-pres-ass-sap:sg         letter:abs

‘I do write a letter’

 

na      či-č-ay          u-nu-k:ar       čağar (Past)    

I:abs   write-pres       i:be:pres-dub            letter:abs

‚Apparently, I write a letter.’

 

‚Apparential’ (‚it seems to X): Construction based: Participle (-s:a) + x:ay CL-u-fPAM

 

na

duš

čağar

čič-l-ay

b-u-s:a

x:-ay

u-ra

 

 

 

I:abs

girl

letter

write-dur-pres

iii-be:pres-part

seem-pres

i:be:pres-sap:sg

 

 

 

‚it seems to me that the girl is writing a letter.’

 

 

2.7.3 TAM-Forms (TV = Thematic vowel)

 

BASE

TAM-Frame

Form

Type of fPAM

Ger.Pres

PRES. STEM

-TV-y (here: TV= -a)

 

 

 

Plein Present

-a

 

1.,2.Sg

-ra

 

 

-a

1.,2.pl.

-ru

 

 

-ay

3.

 

Durative Present

-ay CL-u-

1.,2.Sg

-ra

 

 

-ay CL-u-

1.,2.Pl

-ru

 

 

-ay CL-u-

3.

-r

 

Durative Past

-away

1.,2.

-w

 

 

-away

3.

 

Perfect Categorial

-a

1Sg.

-w

 

 

-a

1Pl.

-rdu

 

Conditional Present

-awiya

1. Sg/Pl

-w

 

Potential

-aw

1.,2. Sg

-a

 

 

-aw

1.,2. Pl

-u

 

 

-aw

3.

-i

 

Assertive Present

-ays:a

1.,2.Sg

-ra

 

 

-ays:a

1.,2. Pl

-ru

 

 

-ays:a-

3.

-r

 

Assertive Past

-ays:iya

1.,2. Sg/Pl

-w

 

 

-ays:iya

3.

 

Gerund Present

-ay

 

 

 

Gerund Present Durative

-ayn-CL-a

 

 

 

Gerund Locative

-ayniy

 

 

 

Gerund Time (parallel)

-ayni

 

 

 

Gerund Time (post)

-ay(niy)kun

 

 

 

Gerund Modal

-aywax$ur

 

 

 

Gerund Conditional

-ayniya

 

 

 

Gerund Conditional Assertive

-ays:aniya

 

 

 

Gerund Conditional Present

-arča(n)

 

 

 

Participle Present

-ays:a

 

 

 

Participle Present Durative

-ayn-CL-as:a

 

 

Ger.Past

PAST STAMM

TV -u- + -nu // CL

 

 

 

Past

-na

1.,2. Sg/Pl

-w

 

 

-na

3.

 

Past Archaic

-u

1.,2. Sg

-ra

 

 

-u

1.,2. Pl

-ru

 

 

-u

3.

-ri

 

Aorist (Preterite)

-n-

1.,2. Sg

-na

 

 

-n-

1.,2. Pl

-nu

 

 

-n-

3.

-ni

 

Past Assertive

-s:a

1.,2. Sg

-ra

 

 

-s:a

1.,2. Pl

-ru

 

 

-s:a

3.

-r

 

Pluperfect

-s:iya

1.,2. Sg/Pl

-w

 

 

-s:iya

3.

 

Gerund Past Durative

-n-CL-a

 

 

 

Gerund Past Locative

-niy

 

 

 

Gerund Past Time (parallel)

-ni

 

 

 

Gerund Past Time (post)

-kun

 

 

 

Gerund Past Modal

-nax$ur

 

 

 

Gerund Past Conditional

-niya

 

 

 

Gerund Past Conditional Assertive

-s:aniya

 

 

 

Participle Past

-s:a

 

 

Infinitiv

Infinitive

-Vn

 

 

 

Future Categorial

-Vn

1.Sg

-na

 

 

-Vn

1.Pl

-nu

 

Optative

-Vn-nu

1.Pl

-ča

 

 

-Vn-na

1. Sg, 2.,3. Pl

-w

 

Future Assertive

-Vn-s:a

1.,2. Sg

-ra

 

 

-Vn-s:a

1.,2. Pl

-ru

 

 

-Vn-s:a

3.

-r

 

Future Conditional

-Vn-s:iya

1.,2. Sg/Pl

-w

 

 

-Vn-s:iya

3.

 

Intentional

-Vn-t’is:a

1.,2. Sg

-ra

 

 

-Vn-t’is:a

1.,2. Pl

-ru

 

 

-Vn-t’is:a

3.

-r

 

Gerund Future

-Vn-nu

 

 

 

Gerund Future Durative

-Vn-CL-a

 

 

 

Gerund Future Intentional

-Vn-t’iy

 

 

 

Gerund Future Intentional Durative

-Vn-t’in-CL-a

 

 

 

Gerund Future Time (parallel)

-Vn-in

 

 

 

Gerund Future Time (ante)

-Vn-c’a