Some basic typological features of Udi

1. Paradigmatic architecture
2. Functional architecture

1. Paradigmatic architecture


Subcategorization: no (neither noun classes nor gender);
Number: Singular vs. plural; in parts collective markers;
Case: Functional vs. local cases which in parts have a functionalmetaphorization.
Inflectional type: a) stem inflection; b) oblique inflection; c) (rare) ergative inflection;
Localization: local cases, postpositions
Possession: case based possessor marking (GenN); no alienable/inalienable opposition; in parts long distance possession; in parts metaphorization of locative cases (ablative); long distance psossession in "have"-constructions (locational);
Inflection in noun phrase: group inflection (no case marking on attributes);


Personal pronouns: Personal pronouns have in parts a specific inflectional paradigm; absolutive-ergative syncretism with speech act participants; no inclusive-exclusive distinction; no number derivation; Deixis is used for third person pronouns;
Deixis: monocentric (space is not determined in reference to speech actparticipants); no vertical subcategorization.
Reflexive: Pronominal reflexivity with strong emphatic and exophoric (in parts logophoric) functions; basic orientation: S=A.

Numerals: vigesimal system.


Infinite forms: masdar (with telic metaphorization), participles,converbs;
monopersonal agreement system (floating clitics); agreement is accusative (S=A).
Tense: Threefold distinction: Past, present, future; all tenses subcategorized in reference to a "past" point of view.
Aspect: Rudimentary distinction "perfective-imperfective"in partsbased on stem formation, else aspect-tense correlation.
Mood: Strong affinity of future tense forms with modality; specific modality markers; no subcategorzation for deontic or epistemic modality;
Evidentiality: No specific morphological means detected so far.
Questions: Questions have a specific agreement marker with third person singular actantcs.
Negation: Free negation particle to which clitic elements (such as personal agreement markers) are necessarily added. The resulting group is floating.

2. Functional architecture:

Value of the relational primitives S,A,{O;IO} (0 = in active, 1 =highly active) [approximative], cf. Schulze 2000:

   semantic:    o.7
   syntactic     o.3
   pragmatic   o.5

Preferred word order (accusative behavior)

   S-V, S>A-V 
   A-O-V, A>IO-O-V

Variation in word order has pragmatic implications.

Word order in noun phrases:
Note: NGen ordering may sometimes occur.

Actance: Case based ergativity (S=O;A) with accusativity based agreementstrategies (S=A;O);
worder order shows an accusative behavior (see above); strong accusative features with reflexives and in co/subordination.

Splitting strategies:

Fluid-S:     S>A with certain verbs of bodily action (control)
S-Split:      S>IO with certain verbs of body sensation.
     A>IO demotion with verba sentiendi(non-control);
                  A>LOC withcertain verbs of potential action (rare);
Fluid-O:    The O-function is subcategorized according to the feature [definite], [aforementioned]; O1 > absolutive, O2 > dative2 (or dative1);
                  Fluid-O becomes more and more fixed (O2) with speech act participants.

Accusative behavior of speech act participants (S=A;O; in parts S=A=O [neutral]).        

IO-domain (indirect objet(ive)) is strongly coupled with the O-domain.

No TAM- based split or split in subordination;

Tendency towards passivization, most often total backgrounding of A-function, rarely partial backgrounding (case marked by the ablative); no antipassives, no labile verbs; partial or total backgrounding of O. 

Actance reduction and increase:

Actance reduction possible with respect to O-function;
Decausativization: with the help of light verbs (related to passives);
Causatives: marked by CAUS-morpheme or light verbs;
Strong tendency towards O-incorporation (in parts actance reduction, A>S);


Basic orientation is accusative (head in S=A-function), it servesto encode the reflexive [IO<POSS<O] domain; additionally, reflexivepronouns are used for emphasis of the S=A domain. The head of the reflexivecan additionally be in long distance or exophoric (empathetic). Hence, the reflexivepronouns covers the following domain: [EMPATH<EMPH<IO<POSS<O] 


Paratactic structures may or may not be linked by conjunctions. Strong tendency towards serialization (first verb marked for TAM only).
Subordination: Both integrating strategies (participles, converbs) and clausal subordination (relative clauses, temporal, modal, causal clauses etc.).
Actance in subordination: verbal case patterns are preserved except with masdars (S=A > genitive, in parts O > genitive).

Topic chaining:
Basically S=A oriented (accusative). Case marking inserialized sequences depends from the valence of the first verb in the sequence. 

Pragmatic functions: Right (afterthought) and left (topic) dislocation; focus indication with the help of personal agreement markers (verbal vs. constituent focus); focus particles (both emphatic and contrastive); no clefts, pseudo-clefts may exist.