188.8.131.52 Further localization strategies: Postpositions
The system of locative cases covers only a part of the grammatical potential
in Udi to refer to space. The basic strategy to assign a landmark function
to a referent is the use of one of the two datives (CONTAINER). Locational
specifications are indicated by the adessive (contact - often vertical) and
the superessive (contact - horizontal). Additionally, two lative functions
are marked by case forms: ablative and allative.
All other locational strategies are covered by postpositions. This is especially
true for those locational strategies that refer to primarily non visible
parts of a landmark (such as 'under', 'behind', 'outside', 'yonder'); additionally,
we have postpositional strategies documented also for 'in' (both MASS and
CONTAINER) and 'in front of' as well as for 'replacement', 'temporal relation'
('till') and some others.
Most of the postpositions are derived from inflected nouns, but note that
the case markers that apply are no longer productive in Udi. The following
base forms are documented:
Other stems that themselves can be related to locative case forms in other
Lezgian languages are b- 'in', q- 'behind, l- 'over'.
To these base forms the following elements can be added:
-s^: 'essive' (note that
-s^ can appear as -s/)
-s^-a 'essive', 'allative'
-...-t'an 'ablative' < Azeri -dan
As a result, we have the following system of postpositions:
-s^: t'os^ 'outside' - qos^
'behind', bos^ 'in', be?s/ 'in front of' (Azeri bas^
-s^-a: os^a 'after'
-a: oq'a 'under' - t'ec/o
(< *t'e-c/o-a?) 'yonder'
-Vxo: os^exo 'from the end of ' - oq'axo
'from under', t'ec/oxo 'from beyond' - t'o?g/o?xo 'from the
side of' - laxo 'over' (no ablative reading!)
-t'an: t'os^t'an 'from outside' - qos^t'an
'from behind' - bos^t'an 'from the inside', be?s/t'an
-Vl: t'o?g/o?l 'at'
Other postposition are: q'ati 'between', dz^ok' 'except',
cirik' 'till', bip'c/o (lit. 4 sides) 'around', baxt'in(k)
'for' (lit. 'for the sake of'), ama 'till', gala 'in place
of', axi?l 'near to'.
As expected, most postpositions call for a genitive case. An ablative is
triggered by os^a, dz^ok', t'os^, axi?l. cirik' has both an absolutive
and a superessive head.