The series PKK:

The series "Person, Klasse, Kongruenz - Fragmente einer Kategorialtypologie des einfachen
Satzes in den ostkaukasischen Sprachen" will be published in seven volumes. The series is
devoted to the morphosyntax, morphosemantics, and pragmatics of the 'simple sentence' in
the about 30 autochthonous East Caucasian languages. Based on a comprehensive description
of the relevant paradigmatic architectures (characterized in technical terms by modest to
strong, mainly suffixing agglutination with tendencies towards fusional and polysynthetic
procedures) the explanation of these architectures together with their co-paradigmatization
will be approached with the help of a language and grammar theoretical frame work that is
labeled "Grammar of Scenes and Scenarios" (GSS).
 GSS hypothesizes that 'simple sentence' structures - themselves the most basic type of
linguistic-communicatively oriented processing of event images - represent the kernel of
prototypically organized language systems. Because of this hypothesis the description and
explanation of those structures gain specific importance.
 GSS tries to explain the grammar of a language on the basis of the cognitive and
(cognition based) communicative behavior of an individual integrated in a collective. This
behavior is dominated by massive hypotheses about the self-attachment to a collective; it
represents a strongly ritualized but construing interaction of the individual and environmental
stimuli which corresponds to the habitus of a collective and which takes place in form of the
tacit (poiematic) and/or articulate (pragmatic) activation of an acquired (and traditional)
knowledge system as an communicative reaction on event images.
 Linguistic behavior represents the individual reaction to a collective communicative
and cognitive standard which itself is predominantly historical in nature. Hence GSS argues
that language as a 'metaphysical' phenomenon owns strong anachronistic features; it follows
that functional and semantic aspects of language architecture are mainly to be explained with
the help of a diachronic perspective (though the potential to adopt newly established
communicative and cognitive routines plays an important role in this respect, too).
 The theoretical frame work underlying GSS can be described as a strong diachronic
model that owes much to holistic cognitivism, constructivism, and pragmatism. Modularity is
only accepted as a secondary 'construction' of users about their language. Rather it is the
structural coupling of adequate network components that has to be described as primary: This
coupling results in language as a complex 'cognitive event' - as an emergent activity of this
polycentric complex.
 According to GSS the linguistic reaction to event images heavily depends on the
cognitive and communicative defaults of such events. It is assumed that there is a (in parts
strongly metaphorized) correlation between the cognitive and communicative architecture of
linguistically oriented event imaging  (Scenes - or (textually coupled) Scenarios) and their
grammaticalization that is based on the Operating System of a given language. The
architectures of scenes (and scenarios) represent strongly ritualized systems that are
metaphorized from space and time experience and the embodiment of environmental
experience. These systems are characterized by parameters of figure-ground relations and their
location in the deictic, communicative, and pragmatic space and time and by further strategies
of modality. Their linguistic instantiation as operating systems that control the dynamic
organization of linguistic paradigms establishes the typological parameters relevant for the
explanation of the architecture of  'simple sentences'. Their diversification in terms of
different and prototypically organized grammatical systems is mainly explained as the
particularization of universal techniques of categorization within the organization of scenes
and scenarios that is conditioned by history and transmitted by collective experience.
 The series "Person, Klasse, Kongruenz" (PKK) aims at the explanation of East
Caucasian techniques to grammaticalize scenes and scenarios with the help of a 'Categorial
Typology'. One objective is to establish a typological oriented description of the underlying,
prototypically organized operating systems. In addition to the description of the synchronic
architectures in a formal and functional perspective the diachronic aspect plays a major role
that serves as a basis for the explanation of the system internal dynamics. In this respect, the
series PKK can also be regarded as a try to reconstruct the operating system of both Proto-East
Caucasian and the intermediate proto-languages.
 The second major objective is to depict the system transcendent conditions of East
Caucasian operating systems both synchronically and diachronically with respect to the
general assumptions of GSS. The results also serve to evaluate the deductive claims of the
language and grammar theory that underlies GSS.
 On the one hand, the series PKK sees itself as the sketch of a 'constructive' model of
language. Hence it is directed at an audience that is interested in problems of language and
grammar theory as well as in typological argumentation. On the other hand, the empirics of
PKK addresses an audience that is specifically interested in the architecture of the
autochthonous East Caucasian language and in its embedding in the frame work of a General
Typology (top)
Band 1 (in zwei Teilen): Die Grundlagen
München/Newcastle 1998: LINCOM Europa, xxx, 685 Seiten.
(LINCOM studies in Caucasian linguistics, 04)

Volume I of PKK elaborates the basic questions and hypotheses related to language and
grammar theory that underlie the frame work of PKK. Furthermore, the prerogatives of the
subsequent volumes are addressed. Chapter I ("Prolegomenon zu einer holistischen
Sprachtheorie") gives an online of what can be called a 'constructivistic language theory'. The
following points (among others) are introduced: Language as a reflex of the cognitive-
communicative interface; synchrony, diachrony, and the anachronism of language systems;
language and grammar; pragmatics, poiematics, and somatics. Chapter I also deals with those
aspects of the history of language research that are relevant for the current interpretative
approach. The claims and hypotheses are reified in chapter III and IV. Chapter III represents
the outline of the prerogatives for a 'Categorial Typology': After a comprehensive discussion
of the architecture of linguistic paradigms these paradigms will be related to cognitive
procedures of categorization. In this respect 'prototypical organization' as a constructional
template for categories receives special attention. In a second step the chapter discusses the
categorial structuring of linguistically oriented event images together with their representation
as 'simple sentences'. It is argued that the linguistic representation of such event images is
defined by basic and universal patterns of categorization, but that it appears more or less
particularized in the single languages depending from tradition and the habitus of a speech
community. Chapter III ends with a first design of a typology of event imaging which
represents a central building block of a 'Grammar of Scenes and Scenarios' (GSS).
 GSS itself is elaborated in chapter IV. After a brief treatment of grammar in the stretch
ratio of individual and collective the question of how grammar can be formalized is discussed.
The remainder of chapter IV is entirely devoted the fragments of GSS, that is to the question
of how the basic architectural features of  'scenes' become grammaticalized by linguistic
'operating systems' and to which degree they can be manipulated out of poiematic and/or
pragmatic reasons. Such features are (among others) causality and its metaphorical emergence
from figure-ground-relations; grading of causality and weighting of actance as the basis for a
scaled and dynamic typology of actance; the interaction of causality and figure-ground-
relations with the serialized information (attention) flow (Topic-Comment etc.); the role of
actants being indirectly involved in causality ('stand-ins'). Here, the question of  a minimal
and maximal configuration of scenes both with respect to quantity and quality ('requisites') is
touched upon.
 The second part of this chapter is devoted to the grammaticalization of scenic
construction patterns or templates in terms of linguistic 'operating systems'. These operating
systems are characterized together with their prototypical organization based on multiple data
from different languages; the question of how the polycentric structures of languages systems
can be located on the accusative-ergative-continuum (AEC) plays a prominent role in this
respect. GSS proposes a unified account of the AEC: The typology of split structures (A-split,
O-split etc.) is regarded as a particularized reaction on the topology of scenes and scenarios as
well as on the semantics and pragmatics of actance and relational features. The manipulation
of the topology of scenes in terms of strategies of perspectivization (diathesis etc.) is
discussed and serves as an anchor to describe the centering of event images with respect to
speech act participants. In this section a preliminary online of the cognitive and
communicative foundations of the category 'person' is attempted as well as the paradigmatic
reaction of operating systems on this category [PKK II will deal with this question in extenso].
A final section deals with central aspect of chaining scenes to scenarios together with the role
that is played by the operating systems to establish linguistic co-texts and extra-linguistic
 Chapter II that is embedded in the theoretical perspective of GSS gives a brief outline
of the empiric basis that will serve to evaluate GSS, namely the autochthonous languages of
Eastern Caucasia. In a first step the question of areal linguistics and areal typology is
addressed with respect to this region; then, the (here) 29 languages are characterized language
by language with respect to their areal distribution etc. (affiliation, number of speakers,
location, dialects etc.). The linguistic affiliation among these languages is discussed in the
following section; its characterization is a main prerogative for the diachronic treatment of the
language systems in question itself again a basic condition for GSS. Finally, the chapter offers
a first cursory introduction into the standard typology of the East Caucasian languages with
respect to morphosyntax (noun inflection, noun classification, personality, verb, basic features
of syntax etc.). This presentation is framed by two text analyses: First, a short tale (in yet
unedited Kryz and Udi versions ) is analyzed on a contrastive basis. Second, an Aghul tale
receives an analytic treatment that already hints at some basic arguments of GSS.

Volume I
Table of contents

Vorbemerkungen     viii
Abkürzungsverzeichnis     xix
Konventionen    xxiii
Zur Umschrift     xxv
Inhaltsverzeichnis    xxvii

I - Prolegomenon zu einer "holistischen" Sprachtheorie

0. Exkurs: Über das Eigentliche der Sprache       1
1. Sprache zwischen Kommunikation und Kognition       3
1.1 Vorbemerkungen       3
1.2 Konkretisierung       9
2. Das Bett der Geschichte       20
3. Folgerungen       42
4. Synchronie und Diachronie       63
5. Sprachsystem als Anachronismus     68
6. Sprache und Grammatik     82
7. Pragmatik, Poiematik, Somatik     94
8. Coda     111

II - Sprachen im Areal und die ostkaukasischen Sprachen

1. Sprachen im Areal     115
2. Der Ostkaukasus als linguistisches Areal     127
3. Die Sprachen des ostkaukasischen Areals     134
3.1 Die einzelnen Sprachgruppen     135
3.1.1 Naxisch     135
3.1.2 Die Daghestan-Sprachen     140 Awaro-Andisch     140 Cezisch     148 Lako-Dargwa     151 Lezgisch     155
3.2 Vorgeschichte     169
3.3 Der "areale Typ" der ostkaukasischen Sprachen     187
3.3.1 Vorbemerkungen     187
3.3.2 "Der Spatz als Händler"     191
3.3.3 Der "kanonische Typ"     206 Nominalflexion     210 Nominalklassifikation     220 Personalität     233 Zur Morphologie des Verbs     238 Der syntaktische Typ der OKS     244
3.3.4 "Die Tochter des Kaufmanns"     248

III - Kategorialtypologie

1. Vorbemerkungen     271
2. Von Paradigmata und Kategorien     276
2.1 Zur Architektur von Paradigmata     276
2.1.1 Vorbemerkungen     276
2.1.2 Die Struktur linguistischer Paradigmata     283
2.2 Auf dem Weg zur Kategorie     292
2.2.1 Vorbemerkungen     292
2.2.2 Prototypische Strukturen     298
2.3 Das Zusammenspiel     308
2.3.1 Zur "Realität" linguistischer Kategorien     308
2.3.2 Die konnektionistische Einbettung     317
3. Kategorialtypologie des "einfachen Satzes"     334
3.1 Kategorialtypologie     334
3.1.1 Kategorien im Netzwerk     334
3.1.2 Universelle und partikulare Kategorien     341
3.2 Zur Typologie von Sachverhaltsvorstellungen     351
3.3 Ausblick     384

IV - Fragmente einer "Grammatik von Szenen und Szenarien"

1. Grammatik zwischen Individuum und Kollektiv     395
2. Formalismen     413
3. Zur Konzeption einer "Grammatik von Szenen und Szenarien"     426
4. Szenen und Szenarien     435
4.1 Vorbemerkungen     435
4.2 Basisarchitekur     445
4.2.1 Kausalität     445
4.2.2 Gradierung     457
4.2.3 Attention flow     491
4.2.4 Von Statisten und Requisiten     511
4.3 Grammatikalisierung     531
4.3.1 Betriebssysteme     531
4.3.2 Perspektivierung     557
4.3.3 Zentrierung     575
5. Ausblick     601

Bibliographie     609
Sachindex     671
Personenindex     676
Sprachindex     684